After researching in the field “Nanobots in the vaccine”, I came across some of the most interesting and futuristic approaches towards vaccination through nanorobots, Nanobots in the vaccine are so far one of the best methods for vaccination, because of its precise, accurate, target-specific and Fast-acting properties.
“Nanotechnology is an idea that most people simply didn’t believe.” ~ Ralph Merkle
- What is NanaoRobotics?
- What are NanoBots?
- How do NanoBots work in the human body?
- How Vaccine Delivery and Development Works?
- NanoBots are used in Vaccine Development
- How NanoBots in Vaccine Delivery:
- What will be the Future of NanoBots in Vaccination
What is NanaoRobotics?
Nanorobotics is the field of robotics in which the robots are of the size of a nanometer (10−9 meters), Nanorobotics is done through nanotechnology to make nanobots.
Nanotechnology is any technological endeavor, that deals with anything with the dimension of fewer than 100 nanometers. While the concept was first brought to light in the late 1950s it wasn’t until the late 1980s that technology advanced enough to actually allow scientists to work in such a small field.
Nanotechnology has several applications included food technology fuels batteries environmental causes chemical sensors and even sporting goods the medical field is one of the most exciting
The goal of Nanorobotics is to create usable nano-robots that are created for a specific purpose, currently, the technology is not fully developed but in the dynamic research phase.
NanoRobotics has many different names nanoengineering, NAnoids, nanomachines, and many more. we can say nanorobotics is used for precise interaction on the nanoscale.
Before starting about Nanobots and other stuff, if you are curious about how nanotechnology can be helpful in healthcare have a look at “FUTURE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN HEALTHCARE: TOP 10 APPLICATIONS“
What are NanoBots?
Nanobots are robots that have the size of Nanometers that are specifically used for medical purposes, nanobots are artificially engineered robots that are programmed for specific tasks.
There are many different types of nanobots that are specially designed for specific purposes, such as drug delivery, molecular spiders, antibacterial nanobots, and more and more.
They can be programmed that uses machine learning algorithms to perform specific tasks. Nanobots are not visible through naked eyes but can visible through a compound microscope and electron microscope.
Generally nanobots are used to form clusters to perform specific tasks like cancer detection, infected organ findings and much more, very few nanobots work singly.
Types of Nanobots used in vaccines for development
According to the research conducted by “ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY” a journal published named “Environmental Science: Nano” in this article named as Environmental and health risks of nanorobots: an early review hey stated the following types of nanobots. nanomachines/nanorobots.
Artificial bacterial flagellum
Repolymerized flagella-bound nanoparticles
Indium, gallium, arsenic, chromium, nickel, gold
Magnetic materials, bacterial flagella
|200–300 nm wide|
200 nm wide
Nanoparticles: 40–400 nm
Nanorod with flagellum tail
|Gold, nickel, polymer|
Gold, graphene oxide, DNA
Gold, nickel, polymer, asparaginase
Gold, iron oxide
Silica, silver, silver chloride
Gold, nickel, polymer
Gold, nickel, silver
Gold, nickel, silver
Barium ferrite, platinum
|250 nm wide|
<300 nm wide
200 nm wide
ca. 500 nm wide
300 nm wide
<210 nm wide
300–600 nm wide
700 nm wide
200 nm wide
200 nm wide
4.6 nm wide
|DNA nanorobots||DNA walker|
Hexagonal barrel cage
Tetrahedron DNA nanoparticle
Icosahedral DNA nanocapsules
35 × 35 × 45 nm
90 × 50 × 2 nm
How do NanoBots work in the human body?
For nanotechnology, at the moment though most developments are still in the experimental phase with these developments comes the ever-present technological risk of hacking nanotech in humans build a new muscle with carbon nanotubes is one such possibility scientists at IBM are also working on using nanotechnology to analyze DNA in just minutes instead of weeks to treat cancer patients with a customized treatment plan.
We’re also seeing the use of nanotech in chemotherapy or vaccines to target specific types of cells in the body we’re experimental nanosponges are being tested to absorb toxins in the body nanotech is also being explored as an early diagnostic tool to detect cancers and infectious diseases.
These nanobots are made from much smaller than human cells, they move, change shape, and most importantly do work on their environment.
Scientists control them by controlling chemical and physical properties, currently so far scientists have created motors, cars, shuttle, and cars as nanobots.
Lets talk about one by one about how nanobots works
How different types of Nanobots work in Human Body
1) Switches: switches are the smallest of all types of nanobots, and are chemically controlled, what we call conformational changes, what does that mean a change in macro-molecules affected by environmental changes.
Basically they have change in structure, but still have same atoms. but can change it’s composition with response to stimulus of change in chemical formations. It’s in the hands of the scientists to change or on/off accordingly.
These Switch nanobots can be of multiple forms right from 3D, to DNA-based, they worked under collective motion that can help to move substances at a macro level, like proteins and cells.
2) Nano Cars: Another Big application of nanobots in vaccines is nanocars, they have spinning wheels and surprisingly rotating axis as shown in the figure below.
They can be activated through chemical messengers or also through light also.
3) Micro Rockets (nanorockets): On a slightly larger scale micro-rockets and micro-submarines have their impact on greater area and are specialised for releasing larger quantity of required materials.
Let’s take an example (example!!!!) it there’s a massive oil lekage in any water bodies microsubmarines can be programmed and constructed in such a way thaht it can be used to capture or remove oil and other harmful pollutants from the water bodies without much harming the ecosystem.
Both of these machines have the ability to react with their surroundings and form gas bubbles, that segregate or propel the nanobots around as shown below.
They can pickup oil and water through hydrophobic interaction or can pickup magnetised cargo by adjusting the surrounding magnet field properties, and this also works with vaccination that is how nanobots works inside body.
There are more different types of nanobots that have much more advantages to the existing ones, they are fast reliable, efficient and durable too.
But scientists are still confused how to use these nanobots for benefits of human health, the research are still ongoing to how to use nanobots are used in vaccine and other health benefits like detecting cancer and other damaged organs.
This is one of the example of new generation nanobots that can be beneficial for human health and vaccination through nanobots.
How Vaccine Delivery and Development Works?
In this, we are not boring you about how a vaccination works but give you a quick synopsis about vaccine development to get a better idea about how nanobots or nanorobots can help in vaccination.
How vaccine is Developed
The development of vaccination is not one issue, how do we know that the vaccine is ready to use? + how do we know that the vaccine can be tested safely on humans? + and then How do we know whether or not it works? and how nanobots in vaccines can be used? is it safe to use nanobots in vaccines?
We take vaccines clinical tests (clinical trials) before it will be published in public, let’s discuss about the producing a specific type of vaccine or a certain specific infectious disease.
Before testing on humans first, the vaccine is tested on animals like rats, rabbits, monkeys, etc. But before testing on animals the vaccine should be passed to many clinical tests i.e to test whether it is safe to use on animals as well.
After the confirmation that the vaccine is safe to use a group of healthy volunteers is arranged, and an agreement is made with them, just to tell them about why, how the vaccine is used on them, and what kind of harm will be possible to their body through a vaccine.
Then the staff gets randomized vaccine to see the working and side effects of vaccine.
NanoBots are used in Vaccine Development
Development of vaccines with the help of nanoparticles or nanobots is still in development stages, but scientists have discovered many things about Nanobots in vaccine development.
It’s also called “nano-sized delivery system for vaccines” here we are discussing about relationship between vaccines and nanomedicines.
We will keep this short and clear and we will not make a mess in your brain, so lets start what are the basic types of vaccines and their working in short!
lets talk about these four types of vaccines that are mentioned in the image.
1) Live Attenuated:
These are live vaccines that simply mean the weakened version of infectious diseases is put into your body, it’s a little harmful but most of the vaccines are made this way, that contains live virus or bacteria which is in weak form so that it cannot harm you.
Subunit as the name suggests these are some of the units of the bacteria or virus-like protein as any other specific part that makes a vaccine it is less harmful as compared to a live vaccine.
Recombinant means putting a specific type of disease in another host like another micro-organism to create a vaccine for us, it simply means we are infecting another bacteria so that it can produce a natural vaccine for its own and then we can extract it from them.
m-RNA is the latest method used for vaccine discovery, it’s a little bit huge topic so just understand it by as it works contrast to DNA vaccine, for more info visit “RNA vaccines: an introduction“
So here we complete our basic introduction to vaccines but how nanobots help in vaccine development, nanobots are programmed robots that help scientists to disperse the vaccine at a much faster and even rate as compared to traditional, this increases the speed of trial and error methods to make vaccines and makes the process of development of vaccines faster.
Nanorobots also add a great help in vaccine dispersion into the host, like in the Subunit vaccine it helps as a protein carrier in the case of protein vaccine. Nanobots also help in carrying and combining multiple units with each other at a much faster rate, thus it increases the speed of vaccine production and development.
There are whole lot of terms in vaccine development by nanobots for more have a look
How NanoBots in Vaccine Delivery:
So far this is the most important use of nanobots/nanorobots/nanomachines/nanoids in vaccination and that is nanobots in vaccine delivery.
Nanobots are well known for their smaller, fast acting, reliable, and precise actions. Nanobots can be use for various medical purposes like detection of cancer cells or any damaged organs or performing any certain but complicated task inside the body.
The most important reason why nanobots should be used in vaccine delivery is because of their preciseness, accuracy, and speed of vaccine delivery.
Nowadays Nanobots are used in vaccine delivery, due to their accuracy and preciseness it will be a great deal to use nanorobots for vaccine delivery.
Sometimes vaccine molecules don’t reach their required place or substance in this case nanorobots are quite essential, like nanocars are used to transport certain vaccine-activated molecules to their destinations.
Sometimes some certain kind of elements comes in-between the molecules of vaccine and the required body part/cell, in this case, nano-submarines/micro-submarines come in use, because they have the tendency to absorb or eliminate specific elements, so micro-submarines can also be beneficial in vaccine delivery.
Nanorockets are specialized for dispersing their quantity on large scale, so nanorockets are extremely important in vaccine delivery because of their fast actions and speed delivery.
Nano-switches are used for precise use of vaccine dosage to a very specific area, with the precise quantity of vaccine can be delivered to the specific part as well.
Unlike traditional vaccines that are injected into the body, nanobots have the ability to carry vaccine molecules to certain and specific parts of the body.
Why we Should use Nanobots in Vaccines:
Take an example of any disease, let’s take one of the major disease like Cancer.
Chances are you’ve been affected by cancer in one way or another according to the Center for Disease Control cancer almost ties with heart disease.
For being the number one leading cause of death in the United States having killed more than one in five people who died from a disease in 2014 for decades.
Scientists and doctors have been working relentlessly to try and put this disease to an end we’ve been able to put a man on the moon.
so why haven’t we been able to here cancer one reason cancer is so difficult to treat is because it is a disease caused by your own cells getting your own body to kill itself.
Masses of cancer cells or tumors and pare the function of nearby cells and can cause them to eventually die this could lead to death.
When the cancer is in a location such as your brain or liver traditional cancer therapies primarily include the use of chemo therapeutic drugs these drugs work by targeting and killing cells in your body.
So although these drugs do kill the cancer cells they can’t help but kill other cells too both your hair cells and the cells that line your gastrointestinal tract also rapidly divide and for this reason we see many cancer patients who suffer from hair loss the experienced side effects such as nausea and much worse as well.
More recent therapies involve the use of antibodies to kill the cancer cells and antibody is a molecule that acts like a biological key if you watch television you may have heard about antibody treatments on recent commercials.
They’re typically advertised as drugs and their names usually end in MAB which stands for monoclonal antibody these antibodies are very good at exclusively targeting cancer cells.
so these treatments can reduce the severity of the side effects we just spoke about in antibody therapies the chemo therapeutic drug that was previously injected into your body is now bound to the antibody.
We can now administer higher doses of medicine to a patient without having to worry about increasing the severity of the chemotherapeutic side effects.
this can lead to both a person having to deal with therapy for a shorter amount of time and having a smaller chance of the cancer coming back despite these promising innovations cancer still has not been cured there are still nonspecific effects because antibodies are not 100% efficient.
How NanoBots will help in Vaccine Delivery
This is where newer technologies will come into play in the future one new tool in the cancer killing toolbox are nanoparticles more than a thousand nanoparticles could fit and to end across the diameter of a human hair.
Although they are small they are incredibly versatile and have great potential shown by research done here at the Johns Hopkins Institute for nanobiotechnology.
In the Jordan green lab at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine researchers are using nanoparticles as a mini delivery vehicle this vehicle will allow more of the therapy.
whether it be a drug-gene or an antibody to reach the site of the tumor more efficiently in the Jonathan Schneck lab also at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine researchers are using nanoparticles to activate immune cells and systems.
This treatment would be similar to how a vaccine would work where immune cells would only kill cancer cells this would eliminate many of the off-target side-effects with current treatments and provide a long lasting immunity in the margarita herrera lab.
At the whiting school of engineering researchers are studying the kinetics of how polymer brushes assemble into these nanoparticles so they may try to better control the size and increase the efficiency at which drugs can be loaded into them.
In the end, all of the research that is being done around the world on this topic will hopefully culminate and lead to significant improvement.
The therapy for the treatment of cancer although we’ve come a long way there is so much to be done before we can lay this topic to rest if you are interested in learning more about the research that is going on at the Johns Hopkins
Advantages of using Nanobots in Vaccine
1) Fast Acting:
The use of Nanobots in the vaccine is quite beneficial as compared to a traditional vaccine that is been injected into our body, which flows through all over the bloodstreams and then it reaches the targeted area or cells, but in the case of nanorobots, they are specifically designed to act on a specific area or target so it save time and acts fast as possible.
2) Target Specific:
As nanobots can be directed towards a specific organ or cell by tracing the chemical released by the cells or organs, so nanorobots can transport the vaccine molecules to a specific cell/organ/molecules within no-time.
3) Precise and Accurate:
As nanoparticles are famous for it’s on-the-point action, so these particles are much more precise as compared to any other vaccination methods out there in the market.
For much deep understanding of Nanobots in vaccine delivery (Nanomedicines), I got an amazing seminar for you, have a look after reading the blog!!
Disadvantages of nanobots in vaccine:
Hacking humans with nanotechnology could be next big thing, and this technology is not far away from actual applications, but there are some of the things that we should consider.
Everything that has so much advantages comes with disadvantages as well.
1) Nanobot Debris
Nanoparticles can also have technical errors as well, while the major problem arises when the nanobots remain in the body for a long time because they are made from non-degradable materials so they cannot be dissolved in the body easily, which leads to the collection of nanorobot debris.
Nanobot debris is much harmful as well because these are nonsoluble, so they can even choke your veins and arteries of any organ and it will ultimately lead to organ failure which also leads to death sometimes!
2) Hacking Attacks
Long before our current technology is able some ideas include a tiny device that gets injected into the body as a sensor or medical delivery device this all sounds positive but there’s a downside – is it secure tiny nanodevices are typically controlled by a program on a traditional electronic device like a computer smartphone or server meaning they could be very hackable some digital security experts confirm that a single nanoparticle in the body with its own processor could be hacked.
But the major problem arises when someone has more than one particle in the body just like a network of nanobots? which many treatments would require a hacker could theoretically turn them into a network in the body using the body’s own systems to communicate and do their bidding.
One of the most obvious and dangerous applications for biomedical hacking is ransomware the hacker took over your inner nanotechnology devices they could demand a ransom with fatal consequences.
If you’re unable or unwilling to pay they could easily turn your body against you and at the very least make you suffer or get sick if not kill you as well!!
It may also be possible for unsavory characters to use nanotechnology itself against their enemies not only in hacking attacks such as inhalable particulate powders to treat love some worry this technology could be an easily weaponized delivery method for bioterrorism
Nanotechnology and medical device hacking would certainly fall under this umbrella but the umbrella is very large lastly it could also fall under the internet-of-things label but this is a broad term.
So it doesn’t exactly define it risk realism has there been a true case of medical device hacking the answer at this point is not clear but there have certainly been crippling hacks of medical centers.
At this point, the risk seems to be mostly theoretical though it’s just a matter of time before blackhat hackers pick up on what white hat hackers have been researching and trying to prove some experts believe is only a matter of time before something fatal happens involving the hacking of a medical device and that only then will medical providers and legislators.
Seriously as mentioned before penetration testing is one of the best ways to find vulnerabilities in medical devices and ensure that your products are as secure as possible
What will be the Future of NanoBots in Vaccination
Nano-robots inserted into the bloodstream that perform surgeries on their own that’s still science fiction but researchers at the Max Planck Institute for intelligent systems in Stuttgart Germany have now gotten one step closer to this vision of the future.
Here in our lab we develop two kinds of microswimmers or nano swimmers one kind is called a micro scallop it uses open and closed motion to swim in non-newtonian fluid another is we call it nano propellers.
So it’s a screw structure and it’s very small in nanometer size and you can translate forward by its rotational motion the micro scale is 600 micron in length and 300 micron in width comparing to a human hair human hair is normally 100 micron in diameter so it’s three times the human here and the nano propeller is even smaller.
Nanometer the movement of nano swimmers had the researchers facing a challenge in water a Newtonian fluid that is characterized by its linear viscous flow behaviour the micro scallop would actually not make any headway thanks to the symmetrical opening and closing but the good news is that in our body.
Our biological fluids are normally non-newtonian which means they are most of them she has a shear thinning effect now our scallop takes advantage of this shear thinning effect and it means that we use a different speed at opening and closing initially shear-thinning effects.
Nano propellers we employ a rotating magnetic field the rotating magnetic field will cause the Nano propeller to rotate and because of its helical structure it will couple the rotating motion to its translational motion so it will move forward.
Researchers produce the nano swimmers using a printing process during the selection of materials their compatibility was especially important for the micro scallop we use first 3d printing and then my promoting technique that means that we first 3d print the mode and then we mode polymer material inside the mold it means that we can use almost all kinds of polymer material that you can mode in the experiment.
Is Nanorobots the future of medicine?
I believe it will take some time before we can actually use such Microsystems for diagnostic purposes in the human body so far we were able to demonstrate that this is possible in vitro now we’re on the brink of testing these small particles on eyeballs of pigs yet I believe it will still be several years if not decades before these approaches will find their way into everyday clinical practice.
We’re essentially interested in an extreme miniaturization of surgical procedures this increases surgical effectiveness reduces operating times and makes minimally invasive interventions possible today there are already sophisticated medical instruments for example in Neurology has enabled the removal of ureases or kidney stones however these interventions always involve anesthesia thanks to extreme miniaturization.
These interventions could potentially be pain-free and performed without anesthesia on patients someday they are artistic miniature physio and Dusty’s angular 4-inch nails fly on dawn and our cores that I mentioned with your DragonCon even though the researcher’s development does not make its way to patients immediately it still opens up new opportunities for medicine and suggests many possibilities in the future as well.
What these tiny particles might someday be able to do for us is science fiction that is to say complex surgeries or transporting therapeutic agents against cancer to a designated location using such nano robots is possibly attainable one day yet so far this is still absolute speculation Berkeley’s other links absolutely despicable you.
Till the take care and Have a good day -kunal salekar