**We many times heard about this word known as “Particle Accelerator”, but what exactly means and what are the different types of particle accelerators are available, which are capable of accelerating electrons, neutron, and protons, Let’s see what are the different types of particle accelerators.**

## What is a Particle Accelerator and How it works

When you hear the words *particle accelerator* the first thing you probably think of is the **Large Hadron Collider**.

I mean it is the most powerful atom smashing machine on the planets very famous it’s charged with unpacking the fundamental mysteries of our universe.

I went there once it was amazing particle accelerators though do exactly that accelerate particles basically charged subatomic particles move through a circular pipe as they whip around the strength of the electric field that keeps them in that pipe increases more energy equals faster particles and faster is better.

At the LHC particles make eleven thousand laps every second for about 20 minutes until they reach their optimum energy level, and then they point them at each other so they can collide that’s really fast though.

scientists use this high-energy tool to better understand the laws of physics and find explanations for theories to explain matter space and time.

easy even though the LHC is the biggest it definitely isn’t the only particle accelerator out there in fact you probably live not too far from one there are over 30,000 particle accelerators all over the world

doing a variety of jobs that sometimes have nothing to do with particle physics

For example, if you’re in Paris France admiring the towering glass pyramid at the louver museum there is a particle accelerator 15 meters below you, yeah! in the basement, physicists use their particle accelerator called a g lae for cultural preservation.

Aglae scans priceless museum artifacts uncovering what they’re made of and making sure they’re the real deal.

Do you want more specifics, of course, you do these scientists use *AGLAE to identify the minerals in the eyes of the famous 45,000-year-old* Egyptian sculpture called **“The Seated Scribe”**.

**Types of Particle Accelerators**

There are especially 4 Types of Particle Accelerators in the world, and they are also known as *High Energy Particle Accelerator*.

Types of Particle Accelerators

**Cyclotron****S****ynchrocyclotron****Synchrotron****Linear Accelerator**

**1) Cyclotron**

There are many different types of high-energy particle accelerators that exist now one of the earliest high-energy particle accelerators that was developed was known as the cyclotron.

So the cyclotron basically consists of two semicircular D shaped vacuum chambers that contain a magnetic field that keeps our particle moving in a circular fashion.

Now between our two these shaped vacuum chambers we contain our region of space that has a variable voltage source and this variable voltage source creates an electric field that accelerates that particle.

Now the electric field changes every half a cycle change direction every half a cycle to keep that particle accelerating because the particle change direction also every half a cycle.

Now the cyclotron is only really able to accelerate our particles to velocities that aren’t that high so the velocities aren’t very close to the speed of light and that’s because when the velocities are low our particles radius of curvature does not depend on the velocity.

so basically the frequency does not depend on our velocity so once again for low energies the frequency of a particle is equal to the frequency of the voltage source and this is known as the ** cyclotron frequency**.

so the cyclotron for this reason is not able to actually accelerate the velocity accelerate our particle to a high velocity.

however what happens if if we want to accelerate that particle to a very high velocity well as the velocity increases the energy increases and at high energies the frequency and the radius of curvature of the particle becomes the on the relativistic energy of that particle on the relativistic velocity.

**2) Synchrocyclotron**

What happens if we want to accelerate that particle to a very high velocity well as the velocity increases the energy increases and at high energies, the frequency and the radius of curvature of the particle becomes the relativistic energy of that particle on the relativistic velocity.

so that’s exactly why we need to build a different type of accelerator to accommodate for this relationship and we build the **synchrocyclotron**.

now the single cyclotron is a cyclotron that takes into account the relationship between our cyclotron frequency and the relativistic velocity or energy of that particle.

so this device basically uses a variable voltage source that changes its frequency to accommodate of the decrease in frequency of our particle.

when the velocity increases so basically in this particle accelerator the frequency of the variable voltage source remained constant and that’s because the velocity wasn’t great enough for the special theory of relativity to take into effect.

so however when the velocity increases the frequency becomes as follows so in this case for the cyclotron the frequency is equal to Q B divided by 2 pi, M however in the case of the single cyclotron.

Where** **is the angular frequency of the electric field, ** **is the charge on the particle, is the magnetic field, and is the mass of the particle. This makes the assumption that the particle is classical, and does not experience relativistic phenomena such as length contraction. These effects start to become significant when , the velocity of the particle greater than . To correct for this, the relativistic mass is used instead of the rest mass; thus, a factor of multiplies the mass, such that,

,

where

.

This is then the angular frequency of the field applied to the particles as they are accelerated around the synchrocyclotron.

so what this factor basically tells us is the following as the particle is accelerating and the velocity increases say velocity that is very close to the speed of light then the denominator term basically becomes a value that is no longer 1 and so the gamma term increases and that means the relativistic mass of the particle also increases.

so as the particle accelerates its mass begins to increase the relativistic mass begins to increase and we see from this equation when the denominator increases the frequency begins to decrease.

As the frequency decreases the radius of curvature of our particle begins to increase so that means that if the frequency is decreasing to accommodate for that decrease in frequency what the **synchrocyclotron** does is it decreases the frequency of the variable voltage.

**3) Synchrotron**

let’s move on to a different type of high-energy particle accelerator that basically also takes it it takes into account the relationship between the decrease in frequency and the increase in velocity so this is known as the synchrotron.

so basically as we’ll see in just a moment what the synchrotron does is instead of increasing or instead of decreasing the frequency of the variable voltage source.

The variable voltage source frequency is constant but the magnetic field is increased so the synchrotron consists of a large circular device that allows particles to travel around the circumference of a circular loop by using magnets and by using the properties of Electro-Magnetism.

so basically we can imagine that we have a circular loop with a certain circumference and along the circumference of this circle that has a certain radius of curvature R.

we have these conductors that have **Y** that have magnets so actually these aren’t conductors they’re simply semicircular tubes that contain magnets and these magnets create a magnetic field **B** that keeps our particle moving in a circular fashion.

we have these conductors that have Y that have magnets so actually these aren’t conductors they’re simply semicircular tubes that contain magnets and these magnets create a magnetic field B that keeps our particle moving in a circular fashion.

now the magnets or between the magnets we have gaps and inside these gaps we have electric shown by the green arrows that accelerate and increase the velocity of those particles.

so basically the magnets are separated by gaps where electric fields are used to accelerate the particles.

Now when the velocity of the particle begins to increase to a very high value close to the speed of light we see from this equation that the relativistic mass begins to increase and the frequency begins to increase or decrease.

As the frequency begins to decrease what would happen is the radius of curvature of the particle would begins to decrease and if nothing is done the particle will basically hit the walls of one of our magnets.

Now to basically keep that from happening we have to keep the frequency constant so that the radius of curvature is also constant.

Now to keep this constant as our relativistic mass increases we can increase the magnetic field B which appears in the numerator term by the same factor and in fact that’s exactly what we do in a Synchrotron.

So to account for the decrease in frequency as the velocity gets higher and higher the magnetic field strength is continually increased to keep the cyclotron frequency constant.

So this increases when the velocity becomes higher and higher so we increase the magnetic field over time by the same factor to keep the cyclotron frequency constant.

In the cyclotron the frequency of our voltage source the variable voltage source does not change rather we change the magnetic field but in the single cyclotron the magnetic field remains constant.

but we change our frequency of oscillation of that variable voltage source so the cyclotron frequency is allowed to decrease and as that takes place the frequency of the voltage source also decreases, in this case, the voltage source frequency does not decrease and the Lutron frequency also does not decrease as well.

**4) Linear Accelerator**

let’s move on to the linear accelerator.

so this is diagrammed in this section we basically have a location our source where we create or begin accelerating our particles.

now the particles in such a case have charged their charge particles such as electrons or ions so the particles with the charge are accelerated linearly through a series of conductors.

We have conductor one two three four and five now the conductors contain a variable voltage source that changes electric field directions to keep the particle accelerating.

so let’s suppose we have an electron that begins in this position so as it begins to accelerate initially this side of the conduct that has a positive saw has a positive sign this side has a negative sign.

So the electron basically moves from the positive to the negative it’s attracted by the positive sign however as it gets close to the negative sign if we keep the negative as it is that electron will be slowed down.

As a result of the electric repulsive force so basically to keep that from happening we change the polarity and we make this negative and this positive and so the electron is allowed to accelerate along these tubular conducting sections.

Now notice since initially the velocity of the particle is low our distance our length of the conductor is also small but as the velocity increases we need to increase the length of our conductor because our object the particle travel is a longer distance over the same time period.

So once again since the initial velocity is low the tubular conductors are short but as the velocity increases, they are made longer and longer so that when the particle exits this region it a high velocity, and calories are great enough energy.

I hope our blog satisfies your educational needs,

If you have any queries feel free to as in the comment section below.

Regards *-Kunal Salekar (Techohealth.com)*

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